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Relation of Cigarette Smoking and Heart Failure in Adults ≥65 Years of Age (From the Cardiovascular Health Study).

TitleRelation of Cigarette Smoking and Heart Failure in Adults ≥65 Years of Age (From the Cardiovascular Health Study).
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsGottdiener, JS, Bůzková, P, Kahn, PA, DeFilippi, C, Shah, S, Barasch, E, Kizer, JR, Psaty, B, Gardin, JM
JournalAm J Cardiol
Date Published2022 Jan 16
Abstract<p>Cigarette smoking is associated with adverse cardiac outcomes, including incident heart failure (HF). However, key components of potential pathways from smoking to HF have not been evaluated in older adults. In a community-based study, we studied cross-sectional associations of smoking with blood and imaging biomarkers reflecting mechanisms of cardiac disease. Serial nested, multivariable Cox models were used to determine associations of smoking with HF, and to assess the influence of biochemical and functional (cardiac strain) phenotypes on these associations. Compared with never smokers, smokers had higher levels of inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6), cardiomyocyte injury (cardiac troponin T [hscTnT]), myocardial "stress"/fibrosis (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 [sST2], galectin 3), and worse left ventricle systolic and diastolic function. In models adjusting for age, gender, and race (DEMO) and for clinical factors potentially in the causal pathway (CLIN), smoking exposures were associated with C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, sST2, hscTnT, and with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic protein (in Whites). In DEMO adjusted models, the cumulative burden of smoking was associated with worse left ventricle systolic strain. Current smoking and former smoking were associated with HF in DEMO models (hazard ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.64 and hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.25, respectively), and with current smoking after CLIN adjustment. Adjustment for time-varying myocardial infarction, inflammation, cardiac strain, hscTnT, sST2, and galectin 3 did not materially alter the associations. Smoking was associated with HF with preserved and decreased ejection fraction. In conclusion, in older adults, smoking is associated with multiple blood and imaging biomarker measures of pathophysiology previously linked to HF, and to incident HF even after adjustment for clinical intermediates.</p>
Alternate JournalAm J Cardiol
PubMed ID35045935
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