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Association of Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Metabolites With Mortality in Older Adults.

TitleAssociation of Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Metabolites With Mortality in Older Adults.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsFretts, AM, Hazen, SL, Jensen, P, Budoff, M, Sitlani, CM, Wang, M, Otto, MC de Olive, DiDonato, JA, Lee, Y, Psaty, BM, Siscovick, DS, Sotoodehnia, N, Tang, WHWilson, Lai, H, Lemaitre, RN, Mozaffarian, D
JournalJAMA Netw Open
Date Published2022 05 02
KeywordsAged, Betaine, Cardiovascular Diseases, Carnitine, Choline, Cohort Studies, Female, Humans, Male, Methylamines, Prospective Studies
Abstract<p><b>Importance: </b>Little is known about the association of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a novel plasma metabolite derived from L-carnitine and phosphatidylcholine, and related metabolites (ie, choline, betaine, carnitine, and butyrobetaine) with risk of death among older adults in the general population.</p><p><b>Objective: </b>To investigate the associations of serial measures of plasma TMAO and related metabolites with risk of total and cause-specific death (ie, deaths from cardiovascular diseases [CVDs] and non-CVDs) among older adults in the US.</p><p><b>Design, Setting, and Participants: </b>This prospective cohort study involved 5333 participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study-a community-based longitudinal cohort of adults aged 65 years or older-who were followed up from June 1, 1989, to December 31, 2015. Participants were from 4 communities in the US (Forsyth County, North Carolina; Sacramento County, California; Washington County, Maryland; and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania). Data were analyzed from March 17 to June 23, 2021.</p><p><b>Exposures: </b>Plasma TMAO, choline, betaine, carnitine, and butyrobetaine levels were measured using stored samples from baseline (June 1, 1989, to May 31, 1990, or November 1, 1992, to June 31, 1993) and follow-up examination (June 1, 1996, to May 31, 1997). Measurements were performed through stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using high-performance liquid chromatography with online electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.</p><p><b>Main Outcomes and Measures: </b>Deaths (total and cause specific) were adjudicated by a centralized Cardiovascular Health Study events committee based on information from medical records, laboratory and diagnostic reports, death certificates, and/or interviews with next of kin. The associations of each metabolite with mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models.</p><p><b>Results: </b>Among 5333 participants in the analytic sample, the mean (SD) age was 73 (6) years; 2149 participants (40.3%) were male, 3184 (59.7%) were female, 848 (15.9%) were African American, 4450 (83.4%) were White, and 35 (0.01%) were of other races (12 were American Indian or Alaska Native, 4 were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 19 were of other races or ethnicities). During a median follow-up of 13.2 years (range, 0-26.9 years), 4791 deaths occurred. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratios for death from any cause (ie, total mortality) comparing extreme quintiles (fifth vs first) of plasma concentrations were 1.30 (95% CI, 1.17-1.44) for TMAO, 1.19 (95% CI, 1.08-1.32) for choline, 1.26 (95% CI, 1.15-1.40) for carnitine, and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.13-1.40) for butyrobetaine. Plasma betaine was not associated with risk of death. The extent of risk estimates was similar for CVD and non-CVD mortality.</p><p><b>Conclusions and Relevance: </b>In this cohort study, plasma concentrations of TMAO and related metabolites were positively associated with risk of death. These findings suggest that circulating TMAO is an important novel risk factor associated with death among older adults.</p>
Alternate JournalJAMA Netw Open
PubMed ID35594043
PubMed Central IDPMC9123496
ePub date: